Hemodynamic Parameters for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
1Researcher in the Department of Instrumentation in University of Coimbra, Portugal.
Corresponding Author:Tania Pereira, Researcher in the Department of Instrumentation in University of Coimbra, Portugal, Tel: +351 239 410 109;
- Received Date: 30 Jan 2016
Accepted Date: 01 Feb 2016
Published Date: 02 Feb 2016
- Copyright © 2016 Pereira T
Citation:Pereira T. (2016). Hemodynamic Parameters for
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. M J Cardiol. 1(1): e001.
Hemodynamic parameters have been recognized as
important biomarkers for cardiovascular (CV) assessment
.Several efforts have been made to develop non-invasive
techniques that allow fast, accurate and low cost devices
in order to implement in clinical routines. The ability to
detect and monitor change in the vital signals that represent
the influence of hemodynamic condition, cardiovascular
function, and the physical properties of arterial wall, could
be a powerful tool for the management of the asymptomatic
diseases intensive care patients monitoring and evaluation
of therapeutically outcomes [1-5]. Blood pressure (BP)
estimation continues to be the most important measurement
of the cardiovascular system in all of clinical medicine .
The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an emerging biomarker
useful for CV risk stratification of patients [7-8]. However
other hemodynamic parameters have been correlated with
changes in the cardiovascular system and could help in the
non- invasive diagnosis [9-14].
HEMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS Blood pressure is the leading
risk factor for mortality worldwide, and several dimensions of
BP are associated with an increased risk of vascular disease,
such as the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and mean
arterial pressure [15-16]. Recent guidelines have a more
integrative approach to estimate the cardiovascular risk, and
the PWV is widely accepted as a marker of arterial stiffness
.The correlation of PWV with diseases and biological features
has been extensively studied in large groups. The influence
of hypertension cardiac disease, atherosclerosis, gender, age
and smoke effect were evaluated [17-23]. PWV measurements
were also used for the assessment of the drug therapy
responses, evaluate the efficacy and monitoring the effects
[24-25]. Hemodynamically, rather than merely consider
its maximum and minimum values, it should be taken into
account the overall shape of the arterial pulse pressure curve
to describe the mechanical properties of the arterial tree and
cardiac function to give an adequate description of the arterial
system behaviour . Several indexes such as augmentation
index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), maximum
rate of pressure change, ejection time index (ETI) and area
under the curve (AUC), can be derived by the descriptive and quantitative analysis of the arterial pressure pulse waveform
[9-14]. Consistent characteristics change in the pressure pulse
wave shape have been described with aging and disease
states predisposing to an increase in vascular events .
The correlation between the parameters has been studied,
mainly between BP and PWV [28,29]. The determination of
the influence between the metrics of hemodynamic signals
represents the current great challenge to understand the
cardiovascular functions and for developing a useful tool for
risk assessment. The assessment of the cardiovascular system
condition based on multi-parameters incorporated into
risk prediction models allows a more precise and accurate
diagnosis of the heart and the arterial tree condition. The
appropriate management of classical risk factors such as
(age, gender, smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index)
together with new hemodynamic biomarkers (BP, PWV, SEVR,
ETI, AUC) represent an important improvement of accurate
Previous studies demonstrated that hemodynamic
parameters are an independent predictor of changes in
the cardiovascular system. The current great challenge is
to develop a system that allows the measurement of multiparameters
in non-invasive way and combined with powerful
algorithms, which provides the assessment of cardiovascular
condition and estimate the risk level.
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Pereira T. (2016). Hemodynamic Parameters for
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. M J Cardiol. 1(1): e001.